Accountability and transparency

WHO/Marko Kokic

Accountability has two main characteristics: the rendering of an account (provision of information); and the consequent holding to account (sanctions or rewards for the accountable party). Health system performance assessment corresponds to a performance accountability approach grounded in management science, which aims at demonstrating and accounting for performance in light of agreed-upon performance targets and, as such, differs from accountability for compliance with procedures and rules (also known as hierarchical control). It holds stakeholders accountable for both the performance of their national/regional/local health systems and for their own performance improvement actions.