Multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB)

Nine of the world’s 30 countries with the highest burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are within the WHO European Region: Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

  • The Region has the highest proportion of new and retreated cases of MDR-TB (an estimated 74 000 cases in 2015).
  • MDR-TB cases account for 16% of new TB cases (about 1 in 6), and 48% of previously treated TB cases (nearly 1 in 2).
  • 18 high-priority countries for TB control bear 99% of the MDR-TB burden (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, the Republic of Moldova, Romania, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan).
  • Of the estimated 74 000 cases of MDR-TB in 2015, only 60% were diagnosed (due to limited access to rapid and quality diagnosis) and treated.
  • In 2015, 1 in 4 new TB patients were not treated successfully – one of the highest rates in the world.
  • Treatment success rate in MDR-TB patients increased from almost 49% in 2011 to over 51% in 2015, but remains far below the 75% target set out in the Tuberculosis action plan for the WHO European Region 2016–2020.
  • Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is on the rise, but is considerably underreported.
  • Over 2000 cases of XDR-TB were detected in MDR-TB patients in 2015, meaning that 1 in 4 MDR-TB patients had XDR-TB; most XDR-TB cases occur in countries with a high burden of MDR-TB.