In Georgia, the transmission of Plasmodium vivax malaria was interrupted in 2010. As a consequence of malaria importation, 2 cases were detected in 2011 and 2012. Since 2013, no locally-acquired cases have been reported.
In the 1920s, malaria constituted one of the major causes of mortality. Following a large-scale campaign, malaria was eradicated in Georgia in 1970. Between 1970 and 1995, the only cases recorded in the country were imported. In 1996, 3 cases of autochthonous malaria were reported in Georgia, in an area close to the border with Azerbaijan. The situation then deteriorated, with autochthonous case numbers peaking in 2002 at 473. Between 1998 and 2002, the number of reported malaria cases increased more than thirtyfold and the first cases of autochthonous malaria were reported in the western part of Georgia. Almost all cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria were registered in 2 south-eastern regions, Kakheti and Kvemo Kartli, bordering Azerbaijan.
At present, malaria poses the highest risk of resurgence and spread in the areas bordering Azerbaijan and Armenia in eastern Georgia, the Black Sea coastal areas and the Kolhid lowlands in the western part of the country, where almost 70% of the total population resides and where the transmission season may last more than 150 days. The main and secondary vectors include Anopheles maculipennis, An. superpictus, An. sacharovi, An. atroparvus, An. hyrcanus, An. claviger and An. melanoon.