The transmission of malaria in Uzbekistan is focal and localized to small areas. In 2011 0 autochthonous cases were reported in the country. Nevertheless, there is some concern that the problem is larger than officially reported.

Malaria was once one of the most prevalent diseases in Uzbekistan, affecting some 80% of the population every year. In 1946, a special programme for eradication was established, which had largely succeeded by 1961. Uzbekistan continued to be highly vulnerable to the resumption of transmission, particularly along the borders with Tajikistan and Afghanistan, where sporadic cases were occasionally reported. Between 1992 and 1998, no cases of malaria due to local transmission were reported.

In 1999, due to a steady increase in imported malaria and the presence of conditions favourable for malaria transmission, the first 7 autochthonous cases of malaria were registered. This number more than quintupled between 1999 and 2000. From 2001 to 2004, 84 cases due to local transmission were registered. All reported cases occurred in the Surkhan-Darya region, which borders Tajikistan and Afghanistan.

The territory of the country can be subdivided into three elimination strata:

  1. areas in the maintenance phase: the north-western part of the country
  2. areas in the consolidation phase: all regions bordering Tajikistan, except the Surkhan-Darya region; and
  3. areas in the attack phase: the Surkhan-Darya region.

Seven Anopheles spp. are registered in the country: An. pulcherimus, An. superpictus, An. maculipennis, An. hyracanus, An. martinius, An. claviger and An. algeriensis.