Monitoring and evaluation
Articles 5 and 13 and Annex 1 of the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) outline certain minimum requirements and functions that should be developed across a country's local, intermediate, and national levels in order to ensure operational compliance with the IHR.
Developing, strengthening and testing IHR-related capacities to ensure preparedness, however, is a continuous process. Exercises and after-action reviews are important instruments for the evaluation of a country's ability to use the IHR on a daily basis. They allow a country to identify gaps, devise improvements and track progress.
WHO has formulated an improved monitoring strategy for States Parties that moves beyond a system of exclusive self-reporting. This strategy was recommended by the IHR Review Committee on second extensions for establishing national public health capacities and on IHR implementation, and was tasked by the World Health Assembly (WHA68/22 Add.1). The revised monitoring and evaluation framework captures both qualitative and quantitative measures of a country's multifaceted IHR functionality though a 4-tiered approach:
- State Party annual reporting
- after-action reviews
- joint external evaluation (JEE).