Urban green spaces and health - a review of evidence (2016)
Modern urban life style is associated with chronic stress, insufficient physical activity and exposure to anthropogenic environmental hazards. Urban green spaces, such as parks, playgrounds, and residential greenery, can promote mental and physical health, and reduce morbidity and mortality in urban residents by providing psychological relaxation and stress alleviation, stimulating social cohesion, supporting physical activity, and reducing exposure to air pollutants, noise and excessive heat. This report summarizes evidence of health benefits, discusses pathways to health and evaluates health-relevant indicators of urban green space. An example of green space accessibility indicator with a detailed methodological tool kit is provided at the end of the report.