Financial protection in high-income countries. A comparison of the Czech Republic, Estonia and Latvia (2018)



This review is part of a series of country-based studies generating new evidence on financial protection in European health systems. Financial protection is central to universal health coverage and a core dimension of health system performance.

The aim of this report is to illustrate the nature of the Regional Office’s work on financial protection and its relevance for policy. To do this, it focuses on three high-income countries – the Czech Republic, Estonia and Latvia – with a view to comparing financial protection across countries that are broadly similar in many ways but experience markedly different levels of financial hardship. The incidence of catastrophic and impoverishing out-of-pocket payments is very low in the Czech Republic, much higher in Estonia and among the highest in the European Region in Latvia.