Ключевые термины и определения

Abuse (drug, alcohol, chemical, substance or psychoactive substance)
Addiction, Drug or Alcohol
Alcohol and drug dependence
Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders
Anorexia nervosa
Asperger's syndrome
Autism-Spectrum Disorders
Behavioural disorders
Bipolar Disorder
Bulimia nervosa
Childhood Autism
Developmental disorder
Drug Use and Drug Use Disorders
Generalized Anxiety disorder
Hyperkinetic disorder / attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Intellectual Disability
Mental disorder prevention
Mental Disorders
Mental Health
Mental Health Legislation
Mental health policy and mental health plan
Mental health promotion
Mental Health Services
Misuse, drug or alcohol
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Other behavioural disorders
Pervasive developmental disorders including autism
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Psychoactive drug or substance
Psychological first aid (PFA)
Psychosocial disabilities
Respite Care
Suicidal behavior
Suicide attempt 
Young Onset Dementia

Abuse (drug, alcohol, chemical, substance or psychoactive substance): A group of terms in wide use but of varying meaning. In DSM-IV, 'psychoactive substance abuse' is defined as a 'maladaptive pattern of use indicated by ... continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused or exacerbated by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous'. It is a residual category, with dependence taking precedence when applicable. The term 'abuse' is sometimes used disapprovingly to refer to any use at all, particularly of illicit drugs. Because of its ambiguity, the term is not used in ICD-10 (except in the case of non-dependence-producing substances); harmful use and hazardous use are the equivalent terms in WHO usage, although they usually relate only to effects on health and not to social consequences. In other contexts, abuse has referred to non-medical or unsanctioned patterns of use, irrespective of consequences. Thus the definition published in 1969 by the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence was 'persistent or sporadic excessive drug use inconsistent with or unrelated to acceptable medical practice'. (Lexicon of Alcohol and Drug Terms, WHO, 1994)

Addiction, Drug or Alcohol: Repeated use of a psychoactive substance or substances, to the extent that the user (referred to as an addict) is periodically or chronically intoxicated, shows a compulsion to take the preferred substance (or substances), has great difficulty in voluntarily ceasing or modifying substance use, and exhibits determination to obtain psychoactive substances by almost any means. ( Lexicon of Alcohol and Drug Terms, WHO, 1994)

Alcohol and drug dependence: A cluster of physiological, behavioural and cognitive phenomena in which the use of alcohol or drugs takes on a much higher priority for a given individual than other behaviours that once had greater value. The alcohol or drug withdrawal state refers to a group of symptoms that may occur upon cessation of alcohol or drug after its prolonged daily use. ( mhGAP Intervention Guide, ISBN 978 92 4 154806 9,  WHO, 2010 )

Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders: Conditions resulting from different patterns of alcohol consumption include acute alcohol intoxication, harmful alcohol use, the alcohol dependence syndrome, and the alcohol withdrawal state. Acute intoxication is a transient condition following intake of alcohol resulting in disturbances of consciousness, cognition, perception, affect or behaviour. Harmful use of alcohol is a pattern of alcohol consumption that is causing damage to health. The damage may be physical (e.g. liver disease) or mental (e.g. episodes of depressive disorder). It is often associated with social consequences (e.g. family problems, or problems at work). ( mhGAP Intervention Guide, ISBN 978 92 4 154806 9,  WHO, 2010)

Anorexia nervosa: A disorder characterized by deliberate weight loss, induced and sustained by the patient. It occurs most commonly in adolescent girls and young women, but adolescent boys and young men may also be affected, as may children approaching puberty and older women up to the menopause. The disorder is associated with a specific psychopathology whereby a dread of fatness and flabbiness of body contour persists as an intrusive overvalued idea, and the patients impose a low weight threshold on themselves. There is usually undernutrition of varying severity with secondary endocrine and metabolic changes and disturbances of bodily function. The symptoms include restricted dietary choice, excessive exercise, induced vomiting and purgation, and use of appetite suppressants and diuretics. ( ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders, Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines, WHO, 2010 update)

Asperger's syndrome: A disorder of uncertain nosological validity, characterized by the same kind of qualitative abnormalities of reciprocal social interaction that typify autism, together with a restricted, stereotyped, repetitive repertoire of interests and activities. The disorder differs from autism primarily in that there is no general delay or retardation in language or in cognitive development. Most individuals are of normal general intelligence but it is common for them to be markedly clumsy; the condition occurs predominantly in boys (in a ratio of about eight boys to one girl). It seems highly likely that at least some cases represent mild varieties of autism, but it is uncertain whether or not that is so for all. There is a strong tendency for the abnormalities to persist into adolescence and adult life and it seems that they represent individual characteristics that are not greatly affected by environmental influences. Psychotic episodes occasionally occur in early adult life. ( ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders, Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines, WHO, 2010 update)

Autism-Spectrum Disorders: The umbrella term 'autism spectrum disorders' (ASDs) covers conditions such as autism, childhood disintegrative disorder and Asperger syndrome. Core symptoms include a variable mixture of impaired capacity for reciprocal socio-communicative interaction and a restricted, stereotyped repetitive repertoire of interests and activities. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders may have decreased general intellectual ability. ( Autism spectrum disorders & other developmental disorders, ISBN 978 92 4 150661 8,  WHO, 2013 )

Behavioural disorders: An umbrella term that includes more specific disorders, such as hyperkinetic disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or other behavioural disorders. Behavioural symptoms of varying levels of severity are very common in the population. Only children and adolescents with a moderate to severe degree of psychological, social, educational or occupational impairment in multiple settings should be diagnosed as having behavioural disorders. For some children with behavioural disorders, the problem persists into adulthood. ( mhGAP Intervention Guide, ISBN 978 92 4 154806 9,  WHO, 2010 )

Bipolar Disorder: Characterized by episodes in which the person's mood and activity levels are significantly disturbed. This disturbance consists on some occasions of an elevation of mood and increased energy and activity (mania), and on others of a lowering of mood and decreased energy and activity (depression). Characteristically, recovery is complete between episodes. People who experience only manic episodes are also classified as having bipolar disorder. ( mhGAP Intervention Guide, ISBN 978 92 4 154806 9,  WHO, 2010 )

Bulimia nervosa: A syndrome characterized by repeated bouts of overeating and an excessive preoccupation with the control of body weight, leading to a pattern of overeating followed by vomiting or use of purgatives. This disorder shares many psychological features with anorexia nervosa, including an overconcern with body shape and weight. Repeated vomiting is likely to give rise to disturbances of body electrolytes and physical complications. There is often, but not always, a history of an earlier episode of anorexia nervosa, the interval ranging from a few months to several years.  ( ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders, Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines, WHO, 2010 update )

Childhood Autism: A pervasive developmental disorder defined by the presence of abnormal and/or impaired development that is manifest before the age of 3 years, and by the characteristic type of abnormal functioning in all three areas of social interaction, communication, and restricted, repetitive behaviour. The disorder occurs in boys three to four times more often than in girls.  ( ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders, Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines, WHO, 2010 update )

Dementia: Dementia is a syndrome due to disease of the brain – usually of a chronic or progressive nature – in which there is disturbance of multiple higher cortical functions, including memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement. Consciousness is not clouded. The impairments of cognitive function are commonly accompanied, and occasionally preceded, by deterioration in emotional control, social behaviour, or motivation. Dementia is not part of normal ageing. Although it can occur at any age, it's more common in older people. (mhGAP intervention Guide, WHO, 2010). This syndrome occurs in a large number of conditions primarily or secondarily affecting the brain (2). Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and possibly contributes to 60–70% of cases. Other major contributors include vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and a group of diseases that contribute to frontotemporal dementia. The boundaries between subtypes are indistinct and mixed forms often co-exist (3). Dementia affects each person in a different way, depending upon the impact of the disease and the person's pre-morbid personality. The problems linked to dementia can be understood in three stages:

  • early stage – first year or two;
  • middle stage – second to fourth or fifth years;
  • late stage – fifth year and after.
These periods are given as an approximate guideline only – sometimes people may deteriorate more quickly, sometimes more slowly. It should be noted that not all persons with dementia will display all the symptoms. 
References: 1)  Dementia: A Public Health Priority, ISBN 978 92 4 156445 8,  WHO, 2012 ; 2)  International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision, WHO, 1994 ; 3)  World Alzheimer's Report 2009, Alzheimer's Disease International,  London, United Kingdom, 2009 ; 4)  Neurological disorders: public health challenges, WHO, 2006 )

Depression: Depression is a common mental disorder, characterized by sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, feelings of tiredness and poor concentration. It can be long lasting or recurrent, substantially impairing a person's ability to function at work or school, or cope with daily life. At its most severe, depression can lead to suicide. When mild, depression can be treated without medicines but, when moderate or severe, people may need medication and professional talking treatments. Non-specialists can reliably diagnose and treat depression as part of primary health care. Specialist care is needed for a small proportion of people with complicated depression or those who do not respond to first-line treatments. Depression often starts at a young age. It affects women more often than men, and unemployed people are also at high risk. ( Depression, Fact sheet nr 369, WHO, October 2012)

Developmental disorder: An umbrella term covering disorders such as intellectual disability / mental retardation as well as pervasive developmental disorders including autism. These disorders usually have a childhood onset, impairment or delay in functions related to central nervous system maturation, and a steady course rather than the remissions and relapses that tend to characterize many other mental disorders. Despite a childhood onset, the developmental disorders tend to persist into adulthood. People with developmental disorders are more vulnerable to physical illness and to develop other priority conditions mentioned in the mhGAP-IG and require additional attention by health-care providers. ( mhGAP Intervention Guide, ISBN 978 92 4 154806 9,  WHO, 2010 )

Drug Use and Drug Use Disorders: Conditions resulting from different patterns of drug use include acute sedative overdose, acute stimulant intoxication or overdose, harmful or hazardous drug use, cannabis dependence, opioid dependence, stimulant dependence, benzodiazepine dependence, and their corresponding withdrawal states. Harmful use of drugs is a pattern of drug consumption that is causing damage to health. The damage may be physical (as in cases of infections related to drug use) or mental (e.g. episodes of depressive disorder) and is often associated with damage to social functioning (e.g. family problems, legal problems or work-related problems). ( mhGAP Intervention Guide, ISBN 978 92 4 154806 9,  WHO, 2010 )

Epilepsy/Seizures: Epilepsy is a chronic condition, characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. It has several causes; it may be genetic or may occur in people who have a past history of birth trauma, brain infections or head injury. In some cases, no specific cause can be identified. Seizures are caused by abnormal discharges in the brain and can be of different forms; people with epilepsy can have more than one type of seizure. The two major forms of seizures are convulsive and non-convulsive. Non-convulsive epilepsy has features such as change in awareness, behaviour, emotions or senses (such as taste, smell, vision or hearing) similar to mental health conditions, so may be confused with them. Convulsive epilepsy has features such as sudden muscle contraction, causing the person to fall and lie rigidly, followed by the muscles alternating between relaxation and rigidity, with or without loss of bowel or bladder control. This type is associated with greater stigma and higher morbidity and mortality. ( mhGAP Intervention Guide, ISBN 978 92 4 154806 9,  WHO, 2010 )

Generalized Anxiety disorder: Anxiety that is generalized and persistent but not restricted to, or even strongly predominating in, any particular environmental circumstances (i.e. it is "free- floating"). The dominant symptoms are variable but include complaints of persistent nervousness, trembling, muscular tensions, sweating, lightheadedness, palpitations, dizziness, and epigastric discomfort. Fears that the patient or a relative will shortly become ill or have an accident are often expressed.  ( ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders, Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines, WHO, 2010 update )

Hyperkinetic disorder / attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) : The main features are impaired attention and overactivity. Impaired attention shows itself as breaking off from tasks and leaving activities unfinished. The child or adolescent shifts frequently from one activity to another. These deficits in persistence and attention should be diagnosed as a disorder only if they are excessive for the child or adolescent's age and intelligence, and affect their normal functioning and learning. Overactivity implies excessive restlessness, especially in situations requiring relative calm. It may involve the child or adolescent running and jumping around, getting up from a seat when he or she was supposed to remain seated, excessive talkativeness and noisiness, or fidgeting and wriggling. The characteristic behavioural problems should be of early onset (before age 6 years) and long duration (> 6 months), and not limited to only one setting.  ( mhGAP Intervention Guide, ISBN 978 92 4 154806 9,  WHO, 2010 )

Intellectual Disability: A significantly reduced ability to understand new or complex information and to learn and apply new skills (impaired intelligence), with a reduced ability to cope independently (impaired social functioning) which started before adulthood, and has a lasting effect on development. Disability depends not only on a child's health conditions or impairments but also and crucially on the extent to which environmental factors support the child's full participation and inclusion in society. The use of the term "intellectual disability" in this Declaration includes children with autism who have intellectual impairments. For the purposes of this Declaration, the term also encompasses children who have been institutionalized because of a perceived disability or family rejection and who acquire developmental delays and psychological problems as a result of their institutionalization. ( European Declaration on the Health of Children and Young People with Intellectual Disabilities and their Families, WHO/Europe, 2010)

Mental disorder prevention: Focuses on reducing risk factors and enhancing protective factors associated with mental ill health with the aim of reducing the risk, incidence, prevalence and reoccurrence of mental disorders. ( Policies & Practice for Mental Health in Europe, ISBN 978 92 890 4279 6,  WHO/Europe, 2008 )

Mental Disorders: Mental disorders comprise a broad range of problems, with different symptoms. They are generally characterized, however, by some combination of disturbed thoughts, emotions, behaviour and relationships with others. Examples are depression, anxiety, conduct disorders in children, bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. Many of these disorders can be successfully treated. ( The world health report 2001 - Mental Health: New Understanding, New Hope, page 10, ISBN 92 4 156201 3, WHO)

Mental Health: Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual can realize his or her own potential, cope with the normal stresses of life, work productively and make a contribution to the community. ( Strengthening mental health promotion, Fact sheet No 220,  WHO, 2001 )

Mental Health Legislation: Mental health legislation, or mental health provisions integrated into other laws (e.g. anti-discrimination, general health, disability, employment, social welfare, education, housing, and other areas), may cover a broad array of issues including access to mental health care and other services, quality of mental health care, admission to mental health facilities, consent to treatment, freedom from cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment, freedom from discrimination, the enjoyment of a full range of civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights, and provisions for legal mechanisms to promote and protect human rights (e.g. review bodies to oversee admission and treatment to mental health facilities, monitoring bodies to inspect human rights conditions in facilities and complaint mechanisms). ( References:  1)  Mental health Atlas 2011, ISBN 9799241564359,  WHO; 2)   Human rights violations of people with mental and psychosocial disabilities: an unresolved global crisis. Drew, N., Funk, M., Tang, S. et al. The Lancet, 378 (9803), 1664 - 1675, 2011)

Mental health policy and mental health plan: The official statement of a government which defines the vision and details an organized set of values, principles, objectives and areas for action to improve the mental health of a population. A mental health plan details the strategies, activities, timeframes and budgets that will be implemented to realize the vision and achieve the objectives of the policy as well as the expected outputs, targets and indicators that can be used to assess whether implementation has been successful. ( References:  1)  Mental health Atlas 2011, ISBN 9799241564359,  WHO ; 2) Mental Health policy, plans and programmes, ISBN ISBN 9241546468,  WHO, 2005 )

Mental health promotion: "Aims to protect, support and sustain emotional and social well-being and create individual, social and environmental conditions that enable optimal psychological and psychophysiological development and improve the coping capacity of individuals. Mental health promotion refers to positive mental health rather than mental ill health." ( Policies and practices for mental health in Europe. Meeting the challenges, ISBN 978 92 890 4279 6,  WHO/Europe, 2008 )

Mental Health Services: The means by which effective interventions for mental health are delivered. The way these services are organized has an important bearing on their effectiveness. Typically, mental health services include outpatient facilities, mental health day treatment facilities, psychiatric wards in a general hospital, community mental health teams, supported housing in the community, and mental hospitals. (References: 1)  Organization of services for mental health, ISBN 9241545925,  WHO, 2003 ; 2)  Mental health Atlas 2011, ISBN 9799241564359,  WHO )

Misuse, drug or alcohol: Use of a substance for a purpose not consistent with legal or medical guidelines, as in the non-medical use of prescription medications. The term is preferred by some to abuse in the belief that it is less judgemental. ( Lexicon of Alcohol and Drug Terms, WHO, 1994)

Obsessive-compulsive disorder: The essential feature is recurrent obsessional thoughts or compulsive acts. Obsessional thoughts are ideas, images, or impulses that enter the patient's mind again and again in a stereotyped form. They are almost invariably distressing and the patient often tries, unsuccessfully, to resist them. They are, however, recognized as his or her own thoughts, even though they are involuntary and often repugnant. Compulsive acts or rituals are stereotyped behaviours that are repeated again and again. They are not inherently enjoyable, nor do they result in the completion of inherently useful tasks. Their function is to prevent some objectively unlikely event, often involving harm to or caused by the patient, which he or she fears might otherwise occur. Usually, this behaviour is recognized by the patient as pointless or ineffectual and repeated attempts are made to resist. Anxiety is almost invariably present. If compulsive acts are resisted the anxiety gets worse.  ( ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders, Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines, WHO, 2010 update )

Other behavioural disorders: Unusually frequent and severe temper tantrums and persistent severe disobedience may be present. Disorders of conduct may be characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of dissocial, aggressive or defiant conduct. Such behaviour, when at its most extreme for the individual, should be much more severe than ordinary childish mischief or adolescent rebelliousness. Examples of the behaviours may include: excessive levels of fighting or bullying; cruelty to animals or other people; fire- setting; severe destructiveness to property; stealing; repeated lying and running away from school or home. Judgements concerning the presence of other behavioural disorders should take into account the child or adolescent's developmental level and duration of problem behaviours (at least 6 months). ( mhGAP Intervention Guide, ISBN 978 92 4 154806 9,  WHO, 2010 )

Pervasive developmental disorders including autism: The features are impaired social behaviour, communication and language, and a narrow range of interests and activities that are both unique to the individual and carried out repetitively. They originate in infancy or early childhood. Usually, but not always, there is some degree of intellectual disability. Behaviours mentioned above are often seen in individuals with intellectual disabilities as well.  ( mhGAP Intervention Guide, ISBN 978 92 4 154806 9,  WHO, 2010 )

Post-traumatic stress disorder: Arises as a delayed or protracted response to a stressful event or situation (of either brief or long duration) of an exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature, which is likely to cause pervasive distress in almost anyone. Predisposing factors, such as personality traits (e.g. compulsive, asthenic) or previous history of neurotic illness, may lower the threshold for the development of the syndrome or aggravate its course, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain its occurrence. Typical features include episodes of repeated reliving of the trauma in intrusive memories ("flashbacks"), dreams or nightmares, occurring against the persisting background of a sense of "numbness" and emotional blunting, detachment from other people, unresponsiveness to surroundings, anhedonia, and avoidance of activities and situations reminiscent of the trauma. There is usually a state of autonomic hyperarousal with hypervigilance, an enhanced startle reaction, and insomnia. Anxiety and depression are commonly associated with the above symptoms and signs, and suicidal ideation is not infrequent. The onset follows the trauma with a latency period that may range from a few weeks to months. The course is fluctuating but recovery can be expected in the majority of cases. In a small proportion of cases the condition may follow a chronic course over many years, with eventual transition to an enduring personality change.  ( ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders, Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines, WHO, 2010 update )

Psychoactive drug or substance: A substance that, when ingested, affects mental processes, e.g. cognition or affect. "Psychoactive" does not necessarily imply dependence-producing, and in common parlance, the term is often left unstated, as in "drug use" or "substance abuse". ( Lexicon of Alcohol and Drug Terms, WHO, 1994)

Psychological first aid (PFA): Humane, supportive response to a fellow human being who is suffering and who may need support. It entails basic, non-intrusive pragmatic care with a focus on listening but not forcing talk, assessing needs and concerns, ensuring that basic needs are met, encouraging social support from significant others and protecting from further harm. ( mhGAP Guidelines for the Management of Conditions Specifically Related to Stress, ISBN 978 92 4 150540 6,  WHO, 2013 )

Psychosis: Characterized by distortions of thinking and perception, as well as inappropriate or narrowed range of emotions. Incoherent or irrelevant speech may be present. Hallucinations (hearing voices or seeing things that are not there), delusions (fixed, false idiosyncratic beliefs) or excessive and unwarranted suspicions may also occur. Severe abnormalities of behaviour, such as disorganized behaviour, agitation, excitement and inactivity or overactivity, may be seen. Disturbance of emotions, such as marked apathy or disconnect between reported emotion and observed affect (such as facial expressions and body language), may also be detected. People with psychosis are at high risk of exposure to human rights violations. ( mhGAP Intervention Guide, ISBN 978 92 4 154806 9,  WHO, 2010 )

Psychosocial disabilities: Refer to people who have received a mental health diagnosis, and who have experienced negative social factors including stigma, discrimination and exclusion. People living with psychosocial disabilities include ex-users, current users of the mental health care services, as well as persons that identify themselves as survivors of these services or with the psychosocial disability itself. ( Human rights violations of people with mental and psychosocial disabilities: an unresolved global crisis. Drew, N., Funk, M., Tang, S. et al. The Lancet, 378 (9803), 1664 - 1675, 2011)

Respite Care: temporary provision of care for a person with mental illness, for example dementia, by people other than the primary caregiver. The term "respite care" is used to cover a diverse range of services. Respite care can take place in the home of the person, in a day-care centre, in the community (e.g. attending a social event) or in a residential setting. It may vary in terms of who provides the care (trained or untrained staff or volunteers). Respite care may also vary in duration – ranging from a few hours to several weeks – and may involve daytime-only care or overnight care. Respite care may be planned or, in an emergency, unplanned. ( Dementia: A Public Health Priority, ISBN: 978 92 4 156445 8,  WHO, 2012 )

Schizophrenia: A severe mental disorder, characterized by profound disruptions in thinking, affecting language, perception, and the sense of self. It often includes psychotic experiences, such as hearing voices or delusions. It can impair functioning through the loss of an acquired capability to earn a livelihood, or the disruption of studies. Schizophrenia typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood. Most cases of schizophrenia can be treated, and people affected by it can lead a productive life and be integrated in society. ( Schizophrenia, derived from: ICD-10; WHO World Mental Health Report, 2001)

Self-harm: A broader term referring to intentional self-inflicted poisoning or injury, which may or may not have a fatal intent or outcome. ( mhGAP Intervention Guide, ISBN 978 92 4 154806 9,  WHO, 2010 )

Stigma: A distinguishing mark establishing a demarcation between the stigmatized person and others attributing negative characteristics to this person. The stigma attached to mental illness often leads to social exclusion and discrimination and creates an additional burden for the affected individual. ( Policies and practices for mental health in Europe. Meeting the challenges, ISBN 978 92 890 4279 6,  WHO/Europe, 2008 )

Suicidal behavior: A range of behaviors that include thinking about suicide (or ideation), planning for suicide, attempting suicide and suicide itself. ( Suicide Report, ISBN 978 92 4 156477 9,  WHO, 2014 )

Suicide: The act of deliberately killing oneself. ( Suicide Report, ISBN 978 92 4 156477 9,  WHO, 2014)       

Suicide attempt: Any non-fatal suicidal behavior, refers to intentional self-inflicted poisoning, injury or self-harm which may or may not have a fatal intent or outcome. ( Suicide Report, ISBN 978 92 4 156477 9,  WHO, 2014 )

Young Onset Dementia: Defined typically as onset before the age of 65 years; a rare condition. ( Dementia: A Public Health Priority, ISBN 978 92 4 156445 8,  WHO, 2012 )